Biomechanical Analysis of Double Poling in Elite Cross-Country Skiers

FasterSkierSeptember 18, 20092

USSA has posted the article “Biomechanical Analysis of Double Poling in Elite Cross-Country Skiers” by Hans-Christer Holmberg, Stefan Lindinger, Thomas Stoggl, Erich Eitzlmair, and Erich Muller.  Holmberg is part of the  Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden and the Åstrand Laboratory, Stockholm University College of Physical Education and Sports, Stockholm, Sweden.  The other authors work with Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria and  the Christian Doppler Laboratory Salzburg,

From the article abstract:

Purpose: To further the understanding of double poling (DP) through biomechanical analysis of upper and lower body movements during DP in cross-country (XC) skiing at racing speed. Methods: Eleven elite XC skiers performed DP at 85% of their maximal DP velocity (V85%) during roller skiing at 1° inclination on a treadmill. Pole and plantar ground reaction forces, joint angles (elbow, hip, knee, and ankle), cycle characteristics, and electromyography (EMG) of upper and lower body muscles were analyzed.

The entire article is available for download in PDF form here from the USSA website.


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  • sailguy

    September 18, 2009 at 8:35 pm

    This is a good study, definitely worth the trouble of translating the doctor-babble into English. The ‘Discussion’ section, starting on page 8, is much easier reading than the first few pages which merely justify the methodology.

  • Marjot

    September 19, 2009 at 12:07 pm

    This study is a great start for men but it would be sad if its findings were applied to elite women’s training unless their known lessor upper body strength relative to leg strength, narrower shoulders, and lessor overall power to cover the same distance and inclines can be “assumed” to be relatively the same as for men. Is it possible that women’s smaller muscles in the upper body (no matter how well trained and conditioned) may require some compensatory strategy in speed and strength of polling that maximises their greater ratio of leg to arm strength?

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